Drugs & Medicines in the Bible: Are they Related to Witchcraft & Sorcery? — and What about Those Miracles?

Unless you know what to look for, medicinal and recreational drug use in the Bible isn’t always evident, because they didn’t speak about drugs as we do today. They used plants and minerals for treatment and healing of ailments and pain, or to produce certain mental effects such as mood relaxers and hallucinogens. Since many Hebrew and Greek words translate differently in some Bible versions, you may not find many scriptural references. These herbs and other materials were supplied by God at creation for our use. This world was perfect at the time of our very beginning, so these organisms and elements would have been used properly in humankind’s job of taking care of God’s creation, but something happened to change that.

To seek some answers about drugs and medicines in the Bible, we must learn some background information about magic and miracles, witchcraft and sorcery. They are not all the same, but they are all interrelated and looked upon a little differently to the ancients, than they do to us today. We must understand their mind-set to understand the use in their culture; for them, this was magic or witchcraft — or miracles.

To obtain, prepare, and use the materials was considered sorcery and witchcraft. Sometimes it was a simple process, but other times it was a technological process with precise formulas and rituals given or directed by some pagan god or some evil spirit entity. To a nonreligious outside observer, the forbidden practice of any pagan magic would be unperceivable from miracles recorded in the Hebrew or Christian biblical texts. Magic and miracles are basically the same thing. In order to direct the reader correctly, Bible writers, guided by God, either legitimized or criticized similar practices. Hence, “rituals that supported their understandings of the proper worship of Yahweh were legitimate, and rituals that undermined their understanding of proper worship were foreign and illegitimate magic.”1

This was necessary since God’s people, historically, have had great difficulty making proper decisions, even when God told them ahead of time that something was improper. The first example of that thought, of course, is in the first book of the Bible, “And the LORD God commanded the man, ‘You may freely eat of every tree of the garden; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die,’” (Genesis 2:16-17, NRSV).2 Since humankind’s fall in the Garden of Eden, we have all inherited sin and death. Sin somehow changed our DNA.3

“Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned” (Romans 5:12).

For millennia people accepted, on faith, this idea of inherited sin, but we now have scientific proof that this is possible. There is science behind the fact that things we do can alter our DNA, which can then be passed down to our children through heredity. This science, called epigenetics, is the study of how outside factors can influence changes in gene expression. An article on the website ‘Natural News’ attests to this fact and indicates DNA can be changed by things like our intention, mental states, and heart coherence.4

Since humans were no longer perfect, they began to make more and more wrong decisions as our species grew. We lost our spiritual connection with God and either lost or never learned the supernatural powers that God planned for us. The Bible does not say supernatural powers aren’t real, only that we are forbidden to learn or use them, and God is very vocal and serious about doing what he expects (example: Exodus 22:18). So, miracles, magic, sorcery, and other such things, are all factual, just not yet fully understood. In the future, after the resurrection, we will be given the opportunity to properly learn and use the advanced sciences and technologies he allows us to discover.

What are Miracles? — What is Magic?

I was an avid reader of science fiction in my youth and I remember two quotes made by author and visionary Arthur C. Clarke. The first quote is, “Magic is just science that we don’t understand yet.”5 The other is, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.”6 If you could jump into a time machine and take a flash light (a ‘torch’, in some countries) with you back to the first century, turning on that flashlight would definitely be considered using magic.

Related to this topic, early Christian theologian and philosopher, Saint Augustine (c. 400 AD), stated the following, “Miracles are not contrary to nature, but only contrary to what we know about nature.”7 Augustine argued that there can be no true transgression of the laws of nature, because everything happens according to God’s will. Any transgression of the laws of nature would therefore happen contrary to God’s will and that is not possible. A miracle therefore is not contrary to nature as it really is, but only contrary to nature as our current understanding supposes it to be.8

Let’s take Jesus walking on water as an example of this logic. If we saw a man walking on water, that would not be possible given the laws of nature as we understand them. But it is logically possible that our understanding of the laws of nature is incomplete, and therefore, under certain circumstances, it is possible for a man to walk on water. There is much more to learn before completely understanding the world we live in and the laws in which it operates.

Sorcery and Witchcraft

During the last couple hundred years, a sorcerer was considered to be “a charlatan, folk healer, street performer, or worker of harmful magic,” but it was different thousands of years ago. Back then the term ‘sorcery’ was an ambiguous term for use of medicinal potions, poison, and magic involving herbs, animal parts, and minerals.9

Unless you studied Greek, one might not know that the word ‘sorcery’, as used in New Testament times, is from the Greek pharmakeia,10 meaning medication, magic, witchcraft, druggist, or poisoner. Another reference source includes the practice of drugging, hence the use of mysterious liquids, as in potions.11 Our modern words of ‘pharmacy’ and ‘pharmaceutical’ are derived from the Greek pharmakeia.

So, sorcery and witchcraft go hand-in-hand. They were closely associated in ancient times with the use of herbs and other drugs.12 And back then, a witch practicing magic referred to either a male or female. It was only since the 13th century that the word ‘witch’ has come to denote a woman who has formed a compact with the devil or with evil spirits.13

Old Testament & New Testament

“Ancient Near Eastern cultures made no clear distinctions between magic and religion, or magic and medicine. The idea of magic as a practice distinct from religion is a modern, Western category.”14 In the Old Testament, “magic was considered an aspect of pagan wisdom; magicians were counted as wise men (Psalm 58:5; Daniel 1:20; 2:13) and officials of foreign governments (Genesis 41:6; Exodus 7:11; Daniel 2:2).”15

“Magic is mentioned as early as Deuteronomy 18:10–11, where various classes of diviners, astrologers, and exorcists are named, their ceremonies being forbidden as idolatrous. Nor is there any doubt expressed as to the actual potency of magic, and the magician, who may misuse it, is accordingly feared and abhorred (Micah 5:11; Jeremiah 27:9; Exodus 22:17–23). The commonest form of magic was the love-charm, especially the love-charm required for an illicit amour.” In the apocalyptic book of Enoch, angels taught the daughters of men incantations, exorcisms, and the cutting of roots, and revealed to them knowledge of healing plants.16

“Although there was a formal ban on magic, [the] Israelite religion appeared on the surface to have adopted some Canaanite magical practices. There are many references scattered throughout the Old Testament to various imitative magical practices.”17 The Old Testament contains many references to drug use or drug users (sorcery – pharmakeia), and since the Hebrew scriptures were translated into Greek (the Septuagint)18 in the 3rd century BC, they can be a bit easier to find, if one wishes and has the time for research.19

By New Testament times, these practices were still prevalent, and even though religious writers “did not explicitly condemn magic, none who practiced magic arts were described in a flattering way. [And] there were numerous warnings against sorcery.”20 In the New Testament, its use (sorcery – pharmakeia) can be found in Galatians 5:20, when we are warned to stay away from the wrongful works of the flesh. (Also see: Revelation 9:21; 18:23; 21:8; 22:15.)

Putting all these thoughts into one package, I believe that some forbidden pagan practices of magic, sorcery, witchcraft, etc., actually work, but we do not have an understanding of their nature or how to control them. It is for our own protection that God said we must stay away from them. In the future new age we may learn about them and be in a position to use good judgement in applying them in Godly ways.

Even the pagans who practiced the supernatural arts did not realize the mechanics of how they worked, but they had free will and a desire to experiment. That is all Satan requires to begin his works of deception, and use his vastly superior knowledge in science and technology, for his own greedy purposes. Once the devil and his cronies are allowed to influence someone, it is easy to direct them in certain directions and in ungodly ways. This is still happening today. Besides drugs and alcohol, another example is the Ouija21 board — a person’s free will and their desire to experiment can allow evil spirits to enter his/her mind and body.

Jesus and Drugs &
How Drugs were Used as Medicine in the Bible

Myrrh

Alcohol and myrrh. Alcohol is by far the most used drug in the Bible, as it is in today’s society. It is easy to produce and most people don’t look upon this substance as a drug, but it acts upon the physical, emotional, and psychiatric system of the user, therefore it could be listed as a narcotic type substance.22 Myrrh is another common drug mentioned in the Bible. It was used for many things, but the sap was specifically useful because of its anesthetic properties. Like opium, myrrh targets opioid receptors to regulate pain.23

The reason I discuss these two drugs first is because they play a prominent part in Jesus’ crucifixion event. When arriving at Golgotha (the crucifixion site), Roman soldiers offered Jesus a drink of wine mixed with myrrh.

“Then they brought Jesus to the place called Golgotha (which means the place of a skull). And they offered him wine mixed with myrrh; but he did not take it. And they crucified him,” (Mark 15:22–24a).

Nard (Spikenard)

This was a tranquilizing drink, sometimes offered to those who were about to be crucified, to help decrease their pain. But after he had tasted it, “he refused it, choosing rather to face suffering and death in full control of all his faculties.”24 This mixture was basically a primitive narcotic, and it fulfilled the prophecy of Psalm 69:21. “They gave me poison for food, and for my thirst they gave me sour wine to drink,”(ESV).25

Nard (or spikenard). Remember that incident of Mary anointing the feet of Jesus? “Mary took a pound of costly perfume made of pure nard, anointed Jesus’ feet, and wiped them with her hair. The house was filled with the fragrance of the perfume,” (John 12:3). This was another occasion of drug use.

Although an extremely expensive perfume, nard oil was also used as a sedative, as well as for fighting insomnia, pain, and minor ailments.26 As an interesting side note on this biblical event, “when Mary lets down her hair she strictly breaks Jewish convention — women never did this in public.”27 (Also see: Luke 7:38.) Think what you may, but I look upon that event as just one of many examples of Jesus considering women as equals with independent rights, especially considering what Jesus said when Judas disapproved of the expensive oil’s use (see John 12:7-8).

Mandrake

Mandrake. This plant, found in the Mediterranean area, has been associated with a variety of sorcery, witchcraft, and other pagan practices. The plant’s roots, which sometimes resemble human figures, are the parts needed for most uses, for they contain components (hallucinogenic alkaloids) producing wild excitement or ecstasy.28 They commonly were used as an aphrodisiac to excite sexual desire.29 The apple-sized fruit of this plant possesses stimulating and narcotic properties in lesser amounts and was called ‘love-apples’ (or ‘Satan’s apples’ by Arabs), and these plants are still grown in Israel and surrounding areas.30 Here is an example, in the Old Testament, of using mandrakes to barter for sex, not much unlike how some alcohols or drugs are used in today’s society.

“In the days of wheat harvest Reuben went and found mandrakes in the field, and brought them to his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, ‘Please give me some of your son’s mandrakes.’ But she said to her, ‘Is it a small matter that you have taken away my husband? Would you take away my son’s mandrakes also?’ Rachel said, ‘Then he may lie with you tonight for your son’s mandrakes.’ When Jacob came from the field in the evening, Leah went out to meet him, and said, ‘You must come in to me; for I have hired you with my son’s mandrakes.’ So he lay with her that night,” (Genesis 30:14-16).

There were various other herbs, chemicals, and minerals that were used in sorcery for both good and bad purposes. For example, frankincense would help relieve gastritis, stomach ulcers, and heal internal wounds. But, on the evil side would be various poisons from animals and plants that could be used to cause harm. This is not an exhaustive list, of course, but those examples mentioned give a rare glimpse into the uses of natural chemicals and mineral substances in ancient culture.

Today

Alcohol and pharmaceutical drugs, are used, like anything else, to help or to harm. This goes for all sciences and technologies, too. Let it get out of hand and Satan sees an opportunity to let his agents move in and take control. Many things in our modern world are of great benefit to our minds, bodies and all of society, and new discoveries are made every day, but humans always seem to find evil uses for them, because of Satan’s influence.

Besides alcohol and various herbs, the pharmaceutical drugs today are constantly changing through chemical manipulation, so new ones arrive in short intervals. As already stated, Satan and his followers are always trying to present opportunities for people to become addicted, so they can influence them in wrong directions. “Therefore, drug abuse, which is associated with sorcery in the Bible, can open a person up to demonic oppression that could ultimately lead to demonic possession.” That isn’t always a consequence, but it should be avoided, just the same.31

Today’s drug users are well aware that the substances they use alter their thoughts, feelings, and physical state, but don’t realize they also alter their spiritual state, too. “Some drugs alter our spiritual state so slightly that the change is imperceptible. Others alter it so dramatically that one can suddenly perceive and interact with the spiritual realm.” Drugs are chemical crowbars that pry open the door to the spiritual world.32 Using these or any other methods of witchcraft is tapping into a spiritual authority other than the Holy Spirit for domination, manipulation, and control.33

Addiction & Help

“Addiction is a word typically used to describe a person’s dependence upon a substance or habit, either physically or psychologically. Though traditionally used in relation to the abuse of alcohol or drugs, people also use addiction to describe an unhealthy focus on other areas ranging from food to video games to social media.

Prayer is our first defense against addiction or any other temptation. “No testing has overtaken you that is not common to everyone. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tested beyond your strength, but with the testing he will also provide the way out so that you may be able to endure it,” (1 Corinthians 10:13).

If you try to resist but fail, even more than once or twice, do not be discouraged. As an example, the apostle Paul said, “to keep me from being too elated, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me, to keep me from being too elated. Three times I appealed to the Lord about this, that it would leave me, but he said to me, ‘My grace is sufficient for you, for power is made perfect in weakness’,” (2 Corinthians 12:7b-9).

We do not know what personal issue caused his struggle, but God gave him the grace to deal with it on a daily basis. Even though a temptation may continue, this does not mean we should give up, but it does mean that, if necessary, we must keep depending on God’s grace.34

Assistance from your Church or even a psychiatrist may help, but unfortunately, in an effort to help, some Christian ministers quote a few Bible scriptures in the hope that one will stick. Or an overworked psychiatrist will shuffle a patient off to some random rehabilitation program or other activity. Either method may be ineffective or inefficient.

If you are old enough, you may remember the time when television was a new device and it was a big clunky box full of wires and electronic vacuum tubes, instead of transistors, printed circuits, and computer chips. And they broke down quite a lot. Most times it was just a vacuum tube that failed.

I knew someone back then that had a television repair business. This guy would go out to a customer’s home and swap-out tubes, one after another, until he stumbled upon the correct one that had failed. He had almost no electronic knowledge, but was a hero to most people — unless it was a more difficult problem. In that case he said the set needed to go into the shop for expert diagnosis (by someone more qualified, of course).

This is the way I look upon some church pastors quoting multipurpose scripture or the psychiatrists shuttling patients around — they are taking shots in the dark hoping one will hit the target and solve the problem. I’m not indicating that they all work this way, but enough do that I find it disturbing. Some pastors are way out of their league taking on these problems and most organization staff psychiatrists are overburdened with patients that they can’t properly diagnose problems or establish a proper treatment.

Take the time to investigate the correct approach. I’m not talking without experience, here. I am not a licensed mental health practitioner,35 but while working with people in a spiritual way, I’ve talked with counselors and doctors as the patient’s advocate. The disturbed and addicted people I worked with had come out of the rehabilitation process, but still had unanswered spiritual issues such as, “Why did God allow this to happen to me?” Since this was not a topic any government agency was allowed to tackle, it was at that point where I could offer the patient help in confronting their lack of trust in God.

A Christian Approach to Treatment

“It should be clear that if a person is a Christian and desires the blessings and power of God upon his life, he should avoid the terrible heartaches and tragedies which accompany the use of alcoholic beverages or the illegal use of narcotic substances. A Christian should attempt to live a life that truly is Christlike and obedient to the Scriptures.”36 A person should take the advice: “Hold fast to what is good; abstain from every form of evil,” (1 Thessalonians 5:21b-22). But history, as well as experience, shows that it isn’t that easy, sometimes.

Christian recording artist Zach Williams wrote the song ‘Chain Breaker’ in an effort to reach people who have been struggling; they may have forgotten what God has done in their life and it tells the truth about whom Jesus is. His music video opens with a woman reflecting upon the errors of her life. (The first 35 seconds do not have any music, but watch and wait.) For many viewers, it will bring tears to their eyes, as it shows the heartache brought on by drugs and alcohol. Selected lyrics are below and see the video link in the References & Notes at the end of this article.37

If you’ve been walking the same old road for miles and miles
If you’ve been hearing the same old voice tell the same old lies
If you’re trying to fill the same old holes inside
There’s a better life, there’s a better life

If you’ve got pain, He’s a pain taker
If you feel lost, He’s a way maker
If you need freedom or saving, He’s a prison-shaking Savior
If you got chains, He’s a chain breaker

In Closing

So, despite all the dozens of scriptural texts applied to addictions, let me give just a few that have been shown to be helpful to people I’ve worked with (besides those mentioned above). By helpful, I mean intriguing enough to the patient or victim to inspire closer examination of the principle behind it.

This one is for those who have shown a desire to follow biblical principles; it suggests not to follow a false spirit that was brought on through substance or emotional abuse. “See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the universe, and not according to Christ,” (Colossians 2:8).

And for those who are really trying their best to overcome their temptations, “Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your minds, so that you may discern what is the will of God — what is good and acceptable and perfect,” (Romans 12:2).

Finally, here are two quotes to keep in the back of the mind for instant retrieval when faced with more than the person thinks they can handle. “Do not be deceived: ‘Bad company ruins good morals’,” (1 Corinthians 15:33). And the other indicates it is Satan that is trying to take them down: “Discipline yourselves, keep alert. Like a roaring lion your adversary the devil prowls around, looking for someone to devour,” (1 Peter 5:8).

Copyright © 2020, Dr. Ray Hermann
OutlawBibleStudent.org

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References & Notes

  1. Roberts, Ronald D., “Magic,” (Eds.) John D. Barry, et al., The Lexham Bible Dictionary, (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016).
  2. Unless otherwise noted, scripture quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible (NRSV), ©1989 the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
  3. DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule composed of two chains that form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms.
    “DNA,” (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc., 16 January 2020), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
  4. Wright, Carolanne, “Confirmed by Science: You really can change your DNA,” (Natural News, September 21, 2013, retrieved on 30 May 2017), https://www.naturalnews.com/042157_DNA_transformation_science_epigenetics.html
  5. “Magic Quotes,” (Good Reads, retrieved 16 January 2020), https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/magic
  6. Clark, Arthur C., Profiles of the Future : An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible, (New York: Harper & Row, 1962).
  7. Augustine of Hippo, In The City of God, Book XXI, Chapter 8, early 5th century, [Augustine quotes Marcus Varro in Of the Race of the Roman People].
  8. “Epistemic theory of miracles,” (Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 5 January 2020), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistemic_theory_of_miracles
  9. Roberts, Ronald D., “Magic,” (Eds.) John D. Barry, et al., The Lexham Bible Dictionary, (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016).
  10. (1) sorcery: Strong’s Greek #5331 – φαρμακεία (pharmakĕia); from 5332; medication (pharmacy), i.e. (by extens.) magic (lit. or fig.): sorcery, witchcraft.
    (2) sorcerer: Strong’s Greek #5332 – φαρμακεύς (pharmakĕus); a druggist (pharmacist) or poisoner, i.e. (by exten.) a magician: sorcerer.
    Strong, James, The New Strong’s Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996).
  11. Souter, Alexander, A Pocket Lexicon to the Greek New Testament, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917), p. 273.
  12. Carpenter, Eugene E., and Comfort, Philip W., Holman Treasury of Key Bible Words: 200 Greek and 200 Hebrew Words Defined and Explained, (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), p. 209.
  13. Davies, T. Witton, “Witch, Witchcraft,” (Eds.) James Orr, et al., The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, (Chicago: The Howard-Severance Company, 1915), p. 3097.
  14. Roberts, Ronald D., “Magic,” (Eds.) John D. Barry, et al., The Lexham Bible Dictionary, (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016).
  15. Chavalas, Mark W., “Magic,” in Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, Baker Reference Library, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1996), p. 502.
  16. Singer, Isidore, (Ed.), The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, (New York; London: Funk & Wagnalls, 1901–1906), vol. 8, pp. 255-256.
  17. Orem, Robert A, Jr., Pharmakia: The Biblical View of Drug Use, (Mount Airy, NC: Robert Orem Publisher, 2019), chapter 4.
  18. Septuagint: the Greek Old Testament is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Jewish Bible in Hebrew.
    “Septuagint,” (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, 14 January 2020), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septuagint
  19. Orem, Robert A., Pharmakia: The Biblical View of Drug Use, (see above).
  20. Chavalas, Mark W., “Magic,” in Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, Baker Reference Library, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1996), p. 502.
  21. Ouija board (also called a spirit board): A flat board marked with the letters of the alphabet, the numbers 0–9, the words “yes”, “no”, “hello”, and “goodbye”, along with various symbols and graphics. It uses a small movable triangular piece of wood or plastic called a planchette. Participants place their fingers on the planchette, and it is moved about the board to spell out words and answer questions from the spirit realm.
    “Ouija,” (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc., 24 December 2019), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ouija
  22. Towns, Elmer, “Is Drug Use a Sin?” (BibleSprout, retrieved 15 January 2020), https://www.biblesprout.com/articles/salvation/sin/drugs-narcotics/
  23. Nemu, Danny, “Getting High with the Most High: Drugs in the Bible,” (Ancient Origins, 27 February 2018), https://www.ancient-origins.net/history-ancient-traditions/getting-high-most-high-drugs-bible-009665
  24. Grassmick, John D., “Mark,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, (Eds.) J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), vol. 2, p. 188.
  25. McLaren, Ross H., “Mark,” in CSB Study Bible: Notes, (Eds.) Edwin A. Blum and Trevin Wax, (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2017), p. 1591.
  26. “Nardostachys jatamansi,” (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc., 12 January 2020), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nardostachys_jatamansi
  27. Burge, Gary M., “John,” in Evangelical Commentary on the Bible, Baker Reference Library, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1995), vol. 3, pp. 864–865.
  28. “Mandrake,” (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc., 19 November 2019), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandrake
  29. Whitaker, Richard, et al., The Abridged Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew-English Lexicon of the Old Testament: From A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament by Francis Brown, S.R. Driver and Charles Briggs, Based on the Lexicon of Wilhelm Gesenius, (Boston; New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1906).
  30. Easton, M. G., Easton’s Bible Dictionary, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1893).
  31. Slick, Matt, “Can drug use cause demonic possession?” (CARM, Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry, retrieved 15 January 2020), https://carm.org/can-drug-use-cause-demonic-possession
  32. Orem, Robert A, Jr., Pharmakia: The Biblical View of Drug Use, (Mount Airy, NC: Robert Orem Publisher, 2019), [in book Introduction].
  33. Joyner, Rick, Overcoming Witchcraft, (Charlotte, NC: Morningstar Publications, 1996), p. 7.
  34. Houdmann, S. Michael, “What is a Christian view of addiction?” (Compelling Truth, retrieved 15 January 2020), https://www.compellingtruth.org/addiction-Christian.html
  35. Author’s note: This is my standard qualifier or disclaimer, since I am not a physician or medical health professional and do not offer medical advice in any manner. The reader is encouraged to consult with a professional for any medical treatment plans.
  36. Towns, Elmer, “Is Drug Use a Sin?” (BibleSprout, retrieved 15 January 2020), https://www.biblesprout.com/articles/salvation/sin/drugs-narcotics/
  37. “Chain Breaker,” Artist & song-writer: Zach Williams; Album: Chain Breaker, (Provident Label Group LLC, div. Sony Music Entertainment, 2016) – VIDEO [no music for the first 35 seconds, but watch and wait]: https://youtu.be/cd_xxmXdQz4
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