Cannibalism – What Does the Bible Say?

Someone would be hard-pressed to imagine something more troubling or macabre than the taboo of eating human flesh. Now, in the animal kingdom, cannibalism is fairly common and found in more than fifteen hundred species, but this activity is rare in humans, just maybe not as rare as you might expect.

Once, during a study about difficult passages in the Bible, someone said, “I don’t understand how people can eat another person. God plainly says it is forbidden.” Well, that statement created quite a problem because, you see, nowhere in the Bible does it forbid eating human flesh. People just assume it is prohibited.

Theoretically, the children of Israel would find some difficulty eating human flesh, only because of strict dietary laws that must be followed. That doesn’t apply to Christians; the Mosaic Law ended when Jesus died on the cross.

For Christ himself has brought peace to us. He united Jews and Gentiles into one people when, in his own body on the cross, he broke down the wall of hostility that separated us. He did this by ending the system of law with its commandments and regulations. He made peace between Jews and Gentiles by creating in himself one new people from the two groups. (Ephesians 2:14-15, NLT).1

Cannibalism! I can’t even think of taking part, but plenty of others have, under hardship conditions. Technically, by Christian standards, one could not murder the person, and the blood would have to be properly drained before preparation, but other than those requirements, there are no biblical restrictions.

Today, that doesn’t seem to be very much a problem with man-made laws either, at least in the United States. In this country “there are no actual laws per se — with one exception — that prohibit the consumption of human flesh. In 49 states, you can, at least theoretically, eat human flesh and drink human blood in full view of a policeman and suffer no legal consequences. But if you try that in Idaho — the one exception — you could spend up to 14 years behind bars.”2 My guess is, even if lawful, there would be plenty of questions and a full mental evaluation for anyone partaking in those actions.

And in morally modern countries, the only way a large population would even consider a cannibalistic situation would be in desperation for the purpose of survival. But think about it. If dead, the spirit returns to God and the body is then but a nonliving vessel — a container, so-to-speak — whose contents will decay and return to the dust from which it came. “For then the dust will return to the earth, and the spirit will return to God who gave it” (Ecclesiastes 12:7). Even so, many would prefer to starve to death than eat that container of meat.

History has, however, recorded cannibalism in most all areas of the world at one time or another. Let’s start with the Bible, which mentions cannibalism in the books of Leviticus, Deuteronomy, 2 Kings, and Jeremiah. We will examine three of these references.

God’s Warning: Deuteronomy 28:53-57

The LORD warned against disobedience of his laws and regulations and told of the curses that would come upon his people if they refused to repent of their sins. Among them was specific mention of cannibalism.

The siege and terrible distress of the enemy’s attack will be so severe that you will eat the flesh of your own sons and daughters, whom the LORD your God has given you. The most tenderhearted man among you will have no compassion for his own brother, his beloved wife, and his surviving children. He will refuse to share with them the flesh he is devouring — the flesh of one of his own children — because he has nothing else to eat during the siege and terrible distress that your enemy will inflict on all your towns.

The most tender and delicate woman among you — so delicate she would not so much as touch the ground with her foot — will be selfish toward the husband she loves and toward her own son or daughter. She will hide from them the afterbirth and the new baby she has borne, so that she herself can secretly eat them. She will have nothing else to eat during the siege and terrible distress that your enemy will inflict on all your towns (Deuteronomy 28:53-57).

Another Warning — Jeremiah 19:1–20

God vows to bring disaster upon Jerusalem because of her idolatry and apostasy and prepares an object lesson for Jeremiah to present. For the visual aid, Jeremiah is instructed to purchase a piece of pottery. “Go and buy a clay jar. Then ask some of the leaders of the people and of the priests to follow you. Go out through the Gate of Broken Pots to the garbage dump in the valley of Ben-Hinnom, and give them this message.” (Jeremiah 19:1-2). This ‘Gate of Broken Pots’ was the city’s exit gate to the rubbish dump located is the Hinnom Valley, which ran south and west of the city.3

This was an appropriate place for Jeremiah’s sermon to the leaders and priests. The Hinnom Valley (later called ‘Gehenna’) was also the location of altars to the pagan god Baal, where people slaughtered their children as sacrificial offerings in fire. “The peace of the deities required sacrifice, and sacrifices were front and center in the temples of every urban center of the ancient world . . . . These sacrifices and offerings were considered gifts given to the deities to ensure their continuing favor and to avoid their punishing wrath.”5 Jeremiah continues his lecture about what the LORD said.

For Israel has forsaken me and turned this valley into a place of wickedness. The people burn incense to foreign gods — idols never before acknowledged by this generation, by their ancestors, or by the kings of Judah. And they have filled this place with the blood of innocent children. They have built pagan shrines to Baal, and there they burn their sons as sacrifices to Baal. I have never commanded such a horrible deed; it never even crossed my mind to command such a thing! (Jeremiah 19:4-5).

Then, as instructed by God, Jeremiah smashes the jar, as an example of how God would smash both the nation of Judah and the city of Jerusalem. They would be reduced to rubble and the entire area would be defiled with decaying bodies of the slain, if they don’t repent. An explicit part of this message was predicting cannibalism.

I will reduce Jerusalem to ruins, making it a monument to their stupidity. All who pass by will be astonished and will gasp at the destruction they see there. I will see to it that your enemies lay siege to the city until all the food is gone. Then those trapped inside will eat their own sons and daughters and friends. They will be driven to utter despair. (Jeremiah 19:8-9).

If the LORD is a god of love, how can he do such terrible things to his people? Couldn’t he find another way of punishment? But let’s face it, they pushed their disobedience to an ultimate level, despite continuous warnings. And, this is important — the LORD’s punishment is not an attack, but the withdrawal of his protection. Even as they disobeyed, the protection of his people had continued, out of love for them. He kept giving warnings, but they were not heeded.

Finally, he will let them suffer from their own actions. This is no different from our own sinning, today. God forgives us if we repent. He will do this over and over until finally, as a last resort, he lets us suffer the full consequences of our own actions. They were given the choice, repent or suffer the consequences, and if you read the following few chapters, you will see that even this harsh and final warning did not bring repentance.

2 Kings 6:24–31

King Ben-Hadad II, the reigning king of Aram (Syria), moved to defeat Israel by sending raiding parties to besiege Samaria. No one could enter or leave and a great famine resulted. “It was so severe that one donkey’s head, one of the least nourishing and most repulsive parts of this animal, unclean to the Israelites, became a highly valued commodity selling for 80 shekels [2 lbs/0.9 kg] of silver. Approximately a half pint [8 oz/226.8 g] of seed pods,6 normally considered animal fodder, cost 5 shekels [2 oz/56.7 g] of silver.”7 These extremely high prices indicated the siege was effective.

Israel’s king, Joram (or Jehoram), was walking along the city’s wall when a woman called out to him, “Please help me, my lord the king!” (2 Kings 6:26b). Frustrated and angry, he blames the LORD for permitting the situation.

He answered, “If the LORD doesn’t help you, what can I do? I have neither food from the threshing floor nor wine from the press to give you.” But then the king asked, “What is the matter?” She replied, “This woman said to me: ‘Come on, let’s eat your son today, then we will eat my son tomorrow.’ So we cooked my son and ate him. Then the next day I said to her, ‘Kill your son so we can eat him,’ but she has hidden her son.”

When the king heard this, he tore his clothes in despair. And as the king walked along the wall, the people could see that he was wearing burlap8 under his robe next to his skin. (2 Kings 6:27-30).

God had promised that such conditions would discipline his people if they turned away from him (also see: Leviticus 26:27-29; Deuteronomy 28:53, 57). After this, the king blamed someone else, when it was actually himself who was to blame all along, it being his and the people’s own apostasy that was the bigger problem. Besides that, the king didn’t properly react upon the siege and try to fight the enemy when he could. “Ancient sieges of cities involved complete blockades and the slow building of ramps, so that soldiers could eventually go over city walls.”9

These biblical examples are extreme, but many of our more modern practices are either cannibalistic or nearly so. Let’s examine some of these. God has warned us of what disasters disobedience to his laws will bring us; is he beginning to remove his protection from the peoples of the world?

Human Placentophagy10 — Cannibalism or Not?

Ingestion of the human placenta (the afterbirth)11 following childbirth has been recorded throughout the world, but modern occurrences are still somewhat rare. However, since the 1970’s, this activity has been on the increase, especially among clients of midwives and alternative health advocates in the United States and Mexico. It doesn’t help that newspaper and magazine articles of celebrities’ keen interest in this activity are abundant. Mothers (and fathers) have been known to eat the placenta in a variety of ways: raw, cooked, dried, in shakes, in soups, etc. Some providers will dehydrate your placenta and supply it in finished capsule form.12

During gestation, the placenta transports various nutrients to the fetus. “Proponents of modern placentophagy argue that the placenta retains some of these substances after delivery, and consumption of the placenta by the mother will help her recover more quickly following childbirth by replenishing nutrients and hormones lost during parturition [delivery].”13

It is also believed that eating the placenta will “cause the release of the chemical oxytocin in the brain. Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions leading to the onset of labor, and after childbirth can also cause the uterus to contract and sooner reach its pre-pregnancy size.”14

Many animal mothers eat their placenta, but not very many humans. So, is eating the human placenta an act of cannibalism? Articles on human placentophagy are careful not to use that word, but does it even fit the accepted description? “Human cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings.”15 So, for those who wish to practice this, let your conscience be your guide.

Body Parts as Medicine

Human placentas have also been used in traditional Chinese medicine, but the mother is only the donor and not included in any other part of the process. The medicine is prepared for other people. In the materia medica of Chinese medicine, Bencao gangmu,16 are seven recipes using the human placenta. Total are thirty-three other human body substances with dozens of recipes for human pharmaceuticals and drug prescriptions.

The western world is not exempt, either. Medicinal cannibalism peaked in popularity during the 16th and 17th centuries. “Many European royals, scientists, and clergy commonly ingested medical potions containing human blood, fat, bodily secretions, and bones believed to cure everything from cuts and bruises to seizures.”17 Many of these human parts became accepted treatments in the 1700s when English physician Robert James published the book Pharmacopœia Universalis.18

Cases of Desperation

There are many instances of cannibalism in cases considered as desperation. “After a plane crash in the Andes in 1972, passengers ate the frozen remains of those who had perished, surviving 72 days before they were rescued. In 2000, three migrants from the Dominican Republic survived for three weeks when their boat engine failed at sea, only by devouring some of the 60 others who succumbed to dehydration and exposure.”19

Russian communist leader Vladimir Lenin’s Bolsheviks party “believed peasants were actively trying to undermine the war effort and by taking their food away it reduced their strength.” Lenin’s attitude was “let the peasants starve.” After a world war, five years of civil war, and a drought in 1921, 30 million Russians became malnourished; the result forced them into trading human flesh on the black market.20

The most extreme case in the United States was that of the Donner Party. In 1846, this group of pioneer families departed on the ‘Oregon Trail’21 from the state of Missouri by wagon train. They were headed to the Pacific coast state of California, but because of several mishaps, they had to spend the winter of 1846-47 snowbound in the harsh Sierra Nevada mountains. Some of the Donner Party migrants “resorted to cannibalism to survive, eating the bodies of those who had succumbed to starvation and sickness.”22

Satire: A Modest Proposal

In eighteenth century Europe, the impoverished Irish were struggling with economic problems and an anonymous essay was published suggesting that the poor sell their children as food to the rich. This idea was presented in a printed brochure. It contained this statement: “I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricasee, or a ragoust.”

This essay was titled A Modest Proposal23 and was written by Jonathan Swift as a satirical reflection on attitudes toward the poor, as well as British policy toward the Irish.24 In order to make the most money, he advised the mother “to let them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump, and fat for a good table. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends, and when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt, will be very good boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter.”

Some say that A Modest Proposal was largely influenced and inspired by Tertullian’s Apology, which was a satirical attack against early Roman persecution of Christianity. “Stylistically, Swift and Tertullian25 share the same command of sarcasm and language . . . Tertullian while attacking pagan parents, and Swift while attacking the English mistreatment of the Irish poor.”26

Fiction: Solyent Green

Many artists and movie directors have used this topic in similar ways. Nearly fifty years ago a movie, Soylent Green, depicted the future United States and the world suffering from vast pollution, overpopulation, and lack of food. In the year 2022, “Soylent Industries, which derives its name from a combination of ‘soy’ and ‘lentil’, controls the food supply of half of the world and sells artificially produced food wafers, including ‘Soylent Red’ and ‘Soylent Yellow’.”27

A new product, ‘Soylent Green’, is far more flavorful and nutritious and is advertised as made from ocean plankton. When following a transport of bodies from a euthanasia center to a recycling plant, people investigating the company discover ‘Soylent Green’ wasn’t made from plankton, but from recycling human corpses.28

As a side note, Washington state, where I live, has a new law making the composting of human bodies legal.29 Well, people, that’s a start! Maybe these ideas crop up periodically because of fear of the future or because it is a ‘green’ solution for our planet; they certainly capture attention and produce a shocking reaction.

Possibly, a more likely evil is that the fear is directed by Satan; it worked for him in the ancient past, so why would he not continue the practice. Even recently “a Swedish behavioral scientist suggested that it may be necessary to turn to cannibalism and start eating humans in order to save the planet.”30

Many people seem to think that the fictional future, depicted above, is getting nearer and truer every day. They point to the actual use of human cells in everyday consumer products. Is this true? Remember, really evil things sometimes start in small ways.

Food, Vaccines, Cosmetics

According to Natural News, if you purchase mass-produced food from several large corporations, you are already getting genetically engineered products manufactured using the tissue of aborted human babies. Known as HEK-293, the aborted human fetal cell line is manipulated to evaluate how the human palate will react to synthetic flavors used in the production of processed foods. HEK stands for ‘human embryonic kidney’, meaning they came from aborted human fetal cells. This does not mean the cells are part of the final product, but they are used in preparation and testing of what is included in the merchandise on the grocer’s shelves.31

Processed food isn’t the only hidden source of additives made using aborted human fetal tissue, in some way or another. Other items include many popular over-the-counter name-brand cosmetic products that many of us are now using. And several vaccines for measles, mumps, and rubella contain direct derivatives of aborted human babies.32 The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) vaccine ingredient list doesn’t list aborted whole body parts as ingredients, but it does list the cells derived from them (WI-38 human female diploid lung tissue cells, and MRC-5 human male diploid lung tissue cells).33 And they are also widely used in cell biology research, as well as by the biotechnology industry to produce therapeutic proteins and viruses for gene therapy.34 There is much money paid and received from the marketing of aborted body parts.

Is this cannibalism? Maybe! It depends upon how each of us views these facts. If not cannibalism, then these processes, and others, are moving fast along the road that leads to it. Knowing human nature, we can be sure that this practice will grow and broaden, rather than be curtailed. While some people will not find all this as unethical, we should really consider what God would think. “The integrity of the upright will guide them, but the perversity of the unfaithful will destroy them.” (Proverbs 11:3, NKJV.)

In Asian Countries

There are other fairly recent bizarre news stories of people eating babies, coming from sources in and out of a large communist Asian country. A popular delicacy is using human fetuses in making herbal soup.35 It is regarded by some as a rejuvenating potion to fix sagging wrinkles, regrowing hair, and more.36

In addition, some capsules have been smuggled out that were filled with powdered human baby flesh, said to boost one’s stamina and sexual health. In some cases, medical staff members would save fetuses in their home refrigerators until they could be sold to clinics that would process the pills, with herbs to disguise the true ingredients.37

A smaller and adjoining communist country has had reports with incidents of cannibalism, especially during their recurring famines. One story told was of a man that dug up his grandchild’s corpse and ate it, and another of boiling a child for food.38

These reports, while disgusting, are real events occurring in various underground or black-market economies. This is not an exhaustive study, either. There are many other forms of cannibalism practiced in the world today. Drinking of blood is but one other example.

It is easy to explain that many countries have few Christian converts, so they have never learned that scripture indicates God’s displeasure with unethical practices of killing babies and marketing their body parts. But you would think that in the United States and the rest of the western world, more people would understand the ethical problems involved and refrain from such things.


We have examined some macabre instances of cannibalism in the Bible, literature, movies, and consumer products, but there are even more examples in art, television programing, and video gaming. The topic comes up in music, too.

One Asian song about child cannibalism was by the Japanese heavy metal rock band ‘Dir en grey’ and titled Umbrella, but I won’t give a link. Some heavy metal rock is . . . well, kind of demonic to me — no implication that this song is pro or con on cannibalism is intended, but that was my gut feeling while viewing it.39 Although I am not inclined to make such things easy to find, I do not believe in hiding them either, so that is enough information for someone to research, if they wish.

But my song pick for this article is “Knives Out” by the English rock band Radiohead, from about 20 years ago. Few music videos can be weird, gruesome, and fun all at the same time, but this one is. Like many pieces of modern art (which I consider this to be), you will have to decide for yourselves what the words and visions represent to you. Someone suggested it is an allegory of violence and competition, but not describing real-life cannibalistic practices.40 And having worked with people — mostly women — exiting from very abusive situations, I have my own idea for this symbolic representation. Selected lyrics are below. A link to this strange video is listed in the References & Notes.41

So knives out
Cook him up
Squash his head
Put him in a pot

I want you to know
He’s not coming back
He’s bloated and frozen
Still there’s no point in letting it go to waste

I have but few last words, except this from the Apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Romans. “And now I make one more appeal, my dear brothers and sisters. Watch out for people who cause divisions and upset people’s faith by teaching things contrary to what you have been taught. Stay away from them” (Romans 16:17).

Copyright © 2020, Dr. Ray Hermann

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References & Notes

  1. Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are taken from the Holy Bible, New Living Translation (NLT), © 2007 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.
  2. Dahl, Richard, “Is It Legal to Eat Human Flesh?”, (Find Law Blog, Thomson Reuters, 25 October 2019),
  3. Walvoord, John F. and Zuck, Roy B., (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), vol. 1, p. 1147.
  4. CSB Study Bible, (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2017), Jeremiah 19:2.
  5. Longenecker, Bruce W., In Stone and Story: Early Christianity in the Roman World, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group, 2020), p. 58.
  6. Note: Some versions of the Bible mention ‘dove’s dung’ which was a popular name for the inedible husks of seeds.
    The NET Bible First Edition Notes, (Richardson, TX: Biblical Studies Press LLC, 2006), 2 Kings6:26-27.
  7. Constable, Thomas L. “2 Kings,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, (Eds.), (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), vol. 1, p. 550.
  8. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 551.
    Note: sackcloth – coarse material made from black goat’s hair, was worn as a symbol of repentance and self-affliction.
  9. Barry, John D., et al., Faithlife Study Bible, (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2012, 2016), 2 Kings 6:24–33.
  10. placentophagy: also known as placentophagia, is the act of consuming part or all of the afterbirth following parturition (delivery) in mammals. This would generally include the fetal membranes.
    “Placentophagy”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation Inc., 4 January 2020),
  11. afterbirth: The placenta and fetal membranes that are expelled after delivery.
    Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2003).
  12. “Human placentophagy”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc., 11 January 2020),
  13.  Ibid.
  14. Ibid.
  15. “Human cannibalism”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc., 26 January 2020),
  16. “Traditional Chinese medicines derived from the human body”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc, 29 January 2020),
  17. “Anthropology of Food: Medicinal Cannibalism”, article abstract, (FBS, retrieved 30 January 2020),
  18. James, R., Pharmacopœia universalis: or, a new universal English dispensatory, (London, J. Hodges, 1747).
    Available online free at: Internet Archive,
  19. Khaleeli, Homa, “Eating people is wrong, but is it against the law?”, (The Guardian: US, Guardian News & Media, 16 December 2015),
  20. Dean, Sarah, “The communist cannibals”, (Daily Mail, 30 December 2016),
  21. Note: The Oregon Trail is a 2,170-mile historic East–West, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States.
    “Oregon Trail”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation Inc., 30 January 2020),
  22. “Donner Party”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation Inc., 20 January 2020),
  23. Swift, Jonathan, A Modest Proposal: for Preventing the Children of Poor People from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, pamphlet, (London: S. Hardling, 1729).
    Also freely available online through ‘The Project Gutenberg Organization’,
  24. “A Modest Proposal”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc., 13 January 2020),
  25. Note: Tertullian was a prolific early Christian author and apologist (155–240 AD). He is perhaps most famous for being the first writer in Latin to use the term ‘trinity’. His idea of a Trinity was not a single ‘triune’ God, as many believe today, but a group of three with God as the founding member.
    “Tertullian”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc., 28 January 2020),
  26. Ibid.
  27. “Soylent Green”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 16 January 2020),
  28. Ibid.
  29. Osborne, Samuel, “Composting of human bodies made legal by US state for first time”, (Independent News UK, 22 May 2019),
  30. Watson, Paul Joseph, “Swedish Behavioral Scientist Suggests Eating Humans to ‘Save the Planet’,” (Summit News: Bizarre, 4 September 2019),
  31. Huff, Ethan A., “Sickening: Major food corporations use tissue from aborted babies to manufacture flavor additives in processed foods”, (Natural News, 15 April 2015),
  32. Ibid.
  33. “Which Vaccines Contain Aborted Baby Parts?”, (Vaxopedia, retrieved 25 January 2020),
  34. “HEK 293 cells”, (Wikipedia, Wikipedia Foundation, Inc., 6 January 2020),
  35. Lavole, Pamala, “Chinese Eat Baby (Fetus) Soup For Sex”, (Parhlo, 20 March 2015),
  36. Mosher, Steven, and Abbamonte, Jonathan, “Chinese Eating Babies & Planned Parenthood Abortionists”, (Population Research Institute, 17 July 2015),
    (If you have trouble accessing this site, try this link:
  37. Dale, Youngbee, “Chinese cannibalism of infant flesh outrages the world”, (The Washington Times, 31 December 2014),
  38. Evans, Becky, “North Korean parents ‘eating their own children’ after being driven mad by hunger in famine-hit pariah state”, (Daily Mail UK, 27 January 2013, [28 Jan. 2013 updated]),
  39. Note: I believe that some ‘gut feelings’ may be a message from God. See this article for some interesting thoughts on this subject:
    Hermann, Ray, “Is that Gut Feeling a Message from God?”, (The Outlaw Bible Student, OBS, 21 October 2018),
  40. “Genius: Lyrics”, (Genus Media Group, retrieved 28 January 2020),
  41. “Knives Out”, Artist: Radiohead; Album: Amnesiac (2001); Writers: Thom Yorke, et al.; (Licensed: Beggars [on behalf of XL Recordings Ltd.]; and others). – VIDEO:
    Note: Kudos for a great job to Director: Michel Gondry; Art Direction: Pierre Pell; Cinematographer: Jean-Louis Bompoint.
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9 thoughts on “Cannibalism – What Does the Bible Say?”

  1. Thank you I enjoyed this article. While a bit long, I found a lot of information. I see one of the book you used has a 2020 publication date. Since we are only into the new year for a few weeks, could that date be in error? Just in case it is in error, ok?

    • I appreciate that you visited this site and read the article. And thanks for the comment, too. In answer to your question — yes, the publication date is correct. Sometimes I get books before the official release, so that 2020 date is accurate. That was a good observation; I didn’t think anyone would even notice it.


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